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[ Methanol-Ammonia ]

Methanol is the simplest alcohol, consisting of a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group. It is a light, volatile, colorless, flammable liquid with a distinctive odor similar to that of ethanol. Methanol production with methanotrophic strains is generally conducted in mineral media prepared in phosphate buffer with MDH inhibitors by adding electron donors. Stable and low-cost chemicals, such as NaCl, may be more feasible for large-scale methanol production.

[ Ammonia in Fertilizer ]

Ammonia is used mainly in Agricultural industries. About 90 percent of all ammonia produced is used in this field. Since, ammonia acts as a rich source of nitrogen and other elements, it is used in fertilizers to basically sustain food production. It is also used in the production of liquid fertilizer solutions consisting of compounds like ammonium nitrate, salts, urea and others. And there’s more. Ammonia is often used as an antifungal agent on certain fruits and as preservatives.

[ Urea ]

Urea is made from ammonia and carbon dioxide. The ammonia and carbon dioxide are fed into the reactor at high pressure and temperature, and the urea is formed in a two-step reaction. The urea contains unreacted NH3 and CO2 and ammonium carbamate. As the pressure is reduced and heat applied the NH2COONH4 decomposes to NH3 and CO2. The ammonia and carbon dioxide are recycled. The urea solution is then concentrated to give 99.6% w/w molten urea, and granulated for use as fertilizer and chemical feedstock.

[ HDPE ]

High density polyethylene (HDPE) is a long-chain polymer or plastic. Polyethylene is the most common form of plastic in the world and can be processed in a number of ways to make it thin, flexible, fluffy or strong and hard such as with HDPE. HDPE is primarily used for wood-plastic composites such as plastic lumber. It is also blow molded to make plastic bottles, such as soda bottles.


LLDPE is produced by polymerization of ethylene (or ethane monomer) with 1-butene and smaller amounts of 1-hexene and 1-octene, using Ziegler-Natta or metallocene catalysts. It is structurally similar to LDPE. The structure of LLDPE has a linear backbone with short, uniform branches (unlike longer branches of LDPE). These short branches are able slide against each other upon elongation without becoming entangled like LPDE. In the present day scenario, linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) has been quite successful in replacing Low Density Polyethylene.

[ Polypropylene ]

Polypropylene belongs to the group of polyolefin and is partially crystalline and non-polar. Its properties are similar to polyethylene, but it is slightly harder and more heat resistant. It is a white, mechanically rugged material and has a high chemical resistance. The industrial production processes can be grouped into gas phase polymerization, bulk polymerization and slurry polymerization. All state-of-the-art processes use either gas-phase or bulk reactor systems.